High protein diet is recommended by dieticians to increase muscle strength and power. It is recommended for body building as it helps to build muscles and to lose fat. A high protein and low carbohydrate diet is advised in Ayurveda to lose weight, and sometimes to gain weight a high protein diet is taken because muscle mass will not increase if one does not take a good amount of protein in diet. Weightlifters and people who regularly go for working out require a good amount of protein to help the muscles to grow and recover from injuries which are caused due to rise in muscles breaking. It also helps to rebuild the muscles.
A diet rich in protein eliminates carbohydrates from the diet and it flushes out a good amount of fluid from the body. An increased amount of proteins in diet raises the level of ketone in body. Ketione is released by burning of fat and it is released into the blood which causes the body to initiate a process called ketosis, which reduces appetite. But one should be cautious before taking up a high protein diet as it raises load on kidney and it can cause re-absorption of NaCl which can cause certain damages to human body. In menopausal women it can help in reducing weight but it can reduce bone density.
It is found that 50 grams to 60 grams of protein is enough for an adult and to calculate the exact amount of protein needed one can multiply body weight to 0.36 to derive the number of grams of proteins needed.
There are two types of proteins: plant based and animal based proteins. Some of the high protein food items are chicken, lean meats, beefs, turkey, eggs, egg white and fishes. Fishes include tuna fish, salmon and shrimp. Nuts and milk are also high in protein.
There are a number of food products which are high in protein such as
1. The substance is found in cow’s milk called Casein, is low in fat and high in protein. It is used in preparation of certain cheese and baby milk powder. The substance fills up the stomach with a gel like substance and it helps in preventing wear and tear to muscles during dieting or weightlifting. It reduces the feeling of hunger.
2. Plant based proteins are soy, olive oil and canola oils which contain unsaturated fat and vegetable proteins. Soy contains linolenic acids and it is useful in building new cells. It is effective in healing wounds and it helps to regenerate cells.
3. Whey contains amino acids and good amount of proteins. It has no fat and cholesterol, and it is helpful in reducing weight.
4. Nuts contain a good amount of proteins and it has lots of calories. It also contains natural fibers and aids in digestion.
5. Animal based protein is found in turkey which contains a low amount of protein and it can be included in diet.
6. To take a high amount of proteins one can take protein shakes and bars.
Read about Natural Energy Supplements. Also know how Shilajit increases power and stamina. Read about Immunity Supplement to strengthen immune system.
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Close up of flower of Garcia mangostana , Queen of Fruits ..Chụp gần Hoa Măng Cụt ...
Image by Vietnam Plants & The USA. plants Chụp hình ở huyện Củ Chi, thành phố Hồ chí Minh, miền Nam Vietnam. Taken in Củ Chi district, Hồ chí Minh city, South Vietnam. Vietnamese named : Măng Cụt Common names : Queen of Fruits , Scientist name : Garcinia mangostana L. Synonyms : Family : Clusiaceae . Họ Bứa Kingdom:Plantae (unranked):Angiosperms (unranked):Eudicots (unranked):Rosids Order:Malpighiales Genus:Garcinia Species:G. mangostana **** duocthaothucdung.blogspot.fr/2012/10/cay-mang-cut-mangous... Thực vật và môi trường : Nguồn gốc : Cây măng cụt được đề cập đến vào thế kỷ thứ 7 è, là một cây ăn trái trong khu vực Đông Nam Á, bắt đầu được phát triển ở Thái Lan vào thế kỷ 19 ème. Nơi nguồn gốc của măng cụt hiện nay không biết chính xác, nhưng người ta nghĩ rằng ở những đảo Sonde và những đảo Moluques, và còn nửa, có những cây hoang dại trong khu rừng Kemaman ở Malaisia. Cạnh đó có những cây đã được thuần hóa trong quần chúng ở Thái Lan hay Miến Điện. Cây măng cụt được trồng rất nhiều ở Thái Lan, khoảng 4000 ha đất trồng trọt canh tác vào năm 1965. Cây măng cụt cũng được trồng ở Cambodge, miền nam Việt Nam và Miến Điện, chạy dài đến Malaisia và Singapour. Mô tả thực vật : Cây măng cụt mangoustan là một cây tiểu mộc, có lá không rụng, tăng trưởng rất chậm, lúc đầu với một tàng lá hình chóp, có thể đạt đến 6 – 25 m chiều cao, màu nâu đậm hay gần như đen, vỏ có vãy, phần vỏ trong màu vàng chứa chất nhựa keo gomme, chầt mủ trắng đắng Lá, mọc đối, cuống lá ngắn, hình bầu dục hay ellip, da dày, dai, và màu lục sậm, hơi bóng ở mặt trên, màu lục vàng và sám xịt ở mặt dưới, khoảng 9 - 25 cm dài, 4,5-10 cm rộng, với gân lá rõ ràng màu xanh. Lá mới màu hồng. Hoa, 4-5 cm rộng, dày thịt, có thể là hoa đực hay hoa lưỡng phái trên cùng một cây, có lá bắc, cuống hoa có đốt. Những hoa đầu tiên hợp thành chùm 3-9, trên đỉnh của nhánh. Hoa có 4 đài , 4 hình trứng bầu dục, dày, thịt, cánh hoa màu xanh với những đóm đỏ bên ngoài, màu vàng đỏ bên trong. Nhiều tiểu nhụy : thụ là tiểu nhụy đầy phấn hoa có thể thụ phấn và không thụ là tiểu nhụy vì lý do nào đó không khả năng thụ phấn như nhụy lép không phấn hoa…… .Những hoa lưỡng tính thường là những hoa mọc đơn lẽ hoặc thành cặp trên ngọn nhánh của cành non, cánh hoa của những loại hoa này có thể có viền màu vàng xanh với màu đỏ hoặc chủ yếu màu đỏ, và nở ra rất nhanh. Trái, trái nạt gần như hình cầu, to bằng trái cam nhỏ hơn, được bao quanh bởi những đài hoa, lớn và nổi bậc ở phần cuống, với 4 đài cánh hình tam giác, phẳng, hợp thành như một hoa hồng ở đỉnh, màu tím đậm đến màu tím đỏ và láng ở bên ngoài, kích thước khoảng 3,4 cm đến 7,5 cm đường kính. Lớp vỏ dày 6 – 10 mm, mặt cắt ngang màu đỏ, màu tím trắng bên trong, vị đắng chứa nhiều chất mủ vàng và một dung dịch nước ép nhuộm màu tím. Có 4 đến 8 phần như múi hình tam giác màu trắng như tuyết, thịt ngọt mềm ( thật sự đây là lớp vỏ ngoài của hạt ). Những trái có thể không hạt hoặc có 1-5 hạt được phát triển đầy đủ. Hạt, hình trứng thuôn dài, hơi dẹt, dài khoảng 2,5 cm dài và 1,6 cm rộng, được bám bao sát bởi nạt thịt trắng như nói trên. Phần thịt hơi chua, hương vị chua rõ ràng, nổi tiếng thơm ngon tuyệt vời. Bộ phận sử dụng : Măng cụt mangoustan hay mangouste là một trái cây tròn màu tím, lớp da dày, chứa một một ruột màu trắng, chia thành nhiều múi 5 hoặc 6 múi. Hương vị ngọt có phần hơi chua. Thành phần hóa học và dược chất : Lớp vỏ ngoài của hạt là một phần của trái chứa đầy hương vị, khi được phân tích cụ thể hàm lượng chất dinh dưởng của lớp vỏ hạt, lớp này vắng mặt hàm lượng những nguyên tố dinh dưởng quan trọng. Những nước ép thu được có màu đỏ bầm và có tác dụng làm se thắt dẩn từ phần sắc tố của lớp vỏ ngoài của trái, bao gồm sắc tố xanthonoïdes, được nghiên cứu gần đây cho hiệu quả tác dụng cải thiện tiềm năng bệnh tật. ● Chất Phytine ( một hợp chất hửu cơ, cấu tạo lên đến 0,68 % trọng lượng klhô ). ● Lớp nạt, vỏ ngoài hạt tương đương đến 31% trên tổng số của cả trái. Còn gọi là tử y thành phần gồm : - mangostin, - những calaba xanthon, - dihydroxy - và trihydroxy dimethyl allyl xanthon. cùng các : ▪ triterpenoid như : - cycloartenol, - friedlin, - b-sitosterol, - betulin, - mangiferadiol, - mangiferolic acid, - cyclolanostendiol, - hydroxy cyclolanostenon. ● Vỏ quả : phần lớn các công tác đều hướng về vỏ quả. Thành phần chính đã được xác định là một loạt xanthone, mà những chất xanthone chính là : - a-mangostin, - b-mangostin, - g-mangostin, - các isomangostin, - trioxyxanthon, bên cạnh có : - pyranoxanthon, - dihydroxy methyl butenyl xanthon, - trihydroxy methyl butenyl xanthon, - pyrano xanthenon. - Các garcinon A, B, C, D, E, - mangostinon, - garcimangoson A, B, C, - egonol, - epicatechin, - procyanidin từ măng cụt nguồn gốc Việt Nam, - benzophenon glucosid tuy số lượng ít cũng đã được tìm ra. ● Bên cạnh protein (7,8%), tanin (11,2%), Đã được xác định : - những trihydroxy methoxy methyl butenyl xanthon, - ethyl methyl maleimid glucopyranosid, ● Vỏ của trái chín, cho một dẫn chất : - polyhydroxy-xanthone gọi là : - mangostin, - β-mangoustine. ● Trái măng cụt thật chín chứa : - những xanthones, - gartanin, - 8-disoxygartanin - và normangostin. ● Một dẫn chất của mangostin, - mangostin-e, - 6-di-O-glucoside, là một chất trầm cảm của hệ thần kinh trung ương và gây ra tăng huyết áp. ● Từ ruột thân cây : - tetrahydroxy xanthon - và dẫn xuất O-glucosid của nó - cùng pentahydroxy xanthon, - maclurin, cũng đã được tìm ra. ● Như các loại quả khác, măng cụt ngọt nhờ có nhiều chất đường : - sucrose, - fructose, - glucose - và có thể cả maltose. ● Nó thơm nhờ một số lớn các chất dễ bốc hơi. ▪ Phổ sắc ký lỏng tinh dầu chiết xuất phát hiện khoảng 50 hóa chất hữu cơ, trong số ấy hơn 30 chất đã được xác định. - hexenol ( 27,27% ), - octan tương đối ít hơn ( 14,76% ) - hexyl acetat ( 7,87% ), - a-copaen ( 7,28% ), - aceton ( 5,65% ), - furfural ( 4,89% ), - hexanol ( 4,38% ), - methyl butenon ( 4,34% ), - toluen ( 2,80% ). - Những chất khác đều dưới 2% nhưng góp phần với các chất trên cấu thành hương vị của măng cụt. ▪ Ngoài hexyl acetat và hexenyl acetat đặc biệt của măng cụt, mùi trái cây là do các chất : - hexenal, - hexanol, - a-bisabolen mà ra, - thêm vào mùi xoài với a-copaen, - mùi hoa lài với furfuryl methylceton, - mùi huệ dạ hương với phenyl acetaldehyd, - mùi cỏ với hexenol, hexanal, - mùi cỏ héo với pyridin, - mùi lá ướt với xylen, - mùi hoa khô với benzaldehyd, - mùi hồ đào với d-cadinen. - Aceton, ethyl cyclohexan đóng góp tính chất dịu ngọt, - toluen, a-terpinol đem lại mùi đường thắng, - methyl butenol, guaien mùi dầu, - valencen đặc biệt mùi mứt cam. Đáng để ý là nếu : - furfurl methylceton cống hiến hương thơm dễ chịu, - thì furfural lại cho thoáng vào một mùi hôi khó ngửi. Qua ví dụ một trái măng cụt, ta thấy hương vị thiên nhiên quả là phức tạp. Đặc tính trị liệu : ► Đặc tính và lợi ích của măng cụt mangoustan : ● Theo Đông y, vỏ quả măng cụt có : ▪ vị chua chát, ▪ tính bình, ▪ đi vào hai kinh phế và đại trường, ● Có tác dụng : - thu liễm, - chỉ huyết, ● dùng để trị - tiêu chảy, - ngộ độc thức ăn, - khi bệnh được thuyên giảm thì ngưng, dùng lâu sẽ sinh táo bón . Từ khi những thành phần có lợi ích của một số phẫm tính y học, măng cụt có thể làm giảm nhiều chứng đau như là : - những bệnh viêm nhiễm, - những chứng đau bụng, - những bệnh dị ứng, - hay những bệnh viêm sưng. Sau nhiều nghiên cứu, măng cụt được xếp vào nhóm trái cây có số lượng lớn đặc tính lợi ích cho cơ thể. Cũng như : ▪ làm chậm quá trình xơ cứng động mạch artério-stérole, có thể dẫn đến chứng cứng động mạch đi kèm theo những mảng xơ vữa athéro-sclérose. ▪ hoạt động ngăn ngừa chứng bệnh đục thủy tinh thể cataracte, ▪ và bệnh tăng nhản áp glaucome. Măng cụt thúc đẩy : ▪ hệ thống phòng thủ của cơ quan chống lại những bệnh nhiễm của tất cả những tác nhân bên ngoài. Mặt khác, măng cụt có những dược tính được xem như : - chống bệnh Alzheimer, - và chống bệnh parkinson. Măng cụt hiện diện như là thuốc : - kháng nấm rất hiệu quả. Nhưng cũng là thuốc : - chống bệnh trầm cảm rất tuyệt. Do sự công nhận của nhiều Bác sỉ y khoa, măng cụt là một chất : - chống lão hóa tự nhiên anti âge naturel. Măng cụt rất giàu những chất : - chống oxy hóa thiên nhiên. Sau đây đề cập đến chất chống oxy hóa thiên nhiên : xanthone ► xanthones : chất chống oxy hóa rất mạnh . Những gốc tự do hiện diện trong thực phẩm, trong không khí mà người ta thở, cũng như trong cơ thể con người. Những gốc tự do là những nguyên tử hay một nhóm nguyên từ với một điện tử electron “ không chẳn ” “non-pairé ” là những hợp chất rất “ không ổn định ” và phản ứng nhanh chống với những hợp chất khác để trở thành ổn định số điện tử. Sau khi thành lập, những gốc tự do bắt đầu một chuổi phản ứng làm tổn hại tế bào, bằng cách loại bỏ những điện tử từ những phân tử trong tế bào dẫn đến tổn thương tế bào cũng như đôi khi làm chết về sau. Những chất chống oxy hóa, như là vitamine A, vitamine C, và E là những hợp chất mà người ta tìm thấy trong thực phẫm ( đặt biệt trong trái cây và trong rau cải ) và giúp đỏ những tế bào cơ thể được bảo vệ trước những tác động có hại của những gốc tự do. Những chất chống oxy hóa hoạt động như là các nhà tài trợ của điện tử cho những gốc tự do khiến chúng ổn định và ngăn chận làm hư hại tế bào. Những xanthones là một gia đình của “ dinh dưởng thực vật ” duy nhất cho nhiều chức năng lợi ích cho cơ thể. Những nhà nghiên cứu khoa học cho thấy có khoảng 200 dạng xanthones khác nhau và những xanthones sau cùng có khả năng chống oxy hóa mạnh, nhiều hơn nửa, được tìm thấy trong vitamines A, C, và E. ● Những chất xanthones có nhiều chức năng : - Trung hòa những gốc tự do, - Giảm viêm sưng, - Thúc đẩy sự cân bằng vi sinh vật, - Duy trì hệ thống tim mạch, - Hỗ trợ tốt cho sụn và khớp xương, - Tăng cường hệ thống miễn dịch, - Duy trì tốt cho hệ hô hấp, - Duy trì tốt cho hệ ruột, ► Cây măng cụt chứa khoảng hơn 40 xanthones, những xanthones của măng cụt là : - những chất chống oxy hóa mạnh đấu tranh chống lại với những gốc tự do nguồn gốc của : - sự lão hóa , - và sự thoái hóa tế bào. ► Việc phát hiện những xanthones của măng cụt được dẫn đến rất nhiều xét nghiệm trong phòng thí nghiệm, kết quả có xu hướng xác nhận một số ứng dụng truyền thống như : - chữa trị dị ứng allergies, - những bệnh vể ống tiêu hóa, - và ngăn ngừa những rối loạn về tim mạch cardiovasculaires. Các dữ liệu khác đã xác định được đặc tính : - chống bệnh ung thư, - và chống bệnh trầm cảm. Ứng dụng : ► Vỏ măng cụt được thái nhỏ và sấy khô thành bột và dùng để chữa trị : - bệnh kiết lỵ. ► Chế biến thành thuốc mỡ, được áp dụng trên : - bệnh chóc lở eczéma, - và những bệnh về da khác. ► Nấu sắc vỏ măng cụt để chữa trị : - tiêu chảy diarrhée, - bệnh lậu cystite, - bằng quang viêm gonorrhée. - và mủ - đắp bên ngoài những vết thương như một dung dịch là se thắt . ► Ngâm một phần vỏ măng cụt qua đêm, sau đó được ngâm trong nước đun sôi infusion, dùng như : - một đơn thuốc chống tiêu chảy mãn tính ở người lớn và trẻ em. ► Tại Phi luật Tân, dùng nấu sắc lá và rể măng cụt như thuốc : - giải nhiệt fébrifuge Và để chữa trị : - những rối loạn tưa miệng troubles muguet, - bệnh tiêu chảy diarrhée, - bệnh kiết lỵ dysenterie - và đường tiểu tiện voies urinaires. ► Ở Malaisie, ngâm trong nước đun sôi infusion lá măng cụt, phối hợp với chuối xanh và một ít benjoin ( là chất nhựa cây hay baume của giống styrax benjoin việt nam gọi cây an tức ) áp dụng vào : - vết thương của bao cắt quy đầu circoncision. ► Nấu sắc rể măng cụt, dùng để : - điều chĩnh chu kỳ kinh nguyệt réglementer les menstruations. ► Dung dịch trích của vỏ được gọi là “ amibiasine ”, đã được thương mại hóa để chữa trị : - bệnh kiết lỵ amib. - chống ký sinh trùng trong ruột. ► Từ lâu, ở Á châu, bên Ấn Độ, trong hệ thống y học truyền thống ayurvedic đã liệt kê vào đơn thuốc chữa trị cổ truyền như : - chống viêm, - chữa tiêu chảy, - ức chế dị ứng, - làm giản phế quản trong điều trị hen suyễn. Nó cũng được xem như là những thuốc : - chống dịch tả, - bệnh lỵ, - kháng vi khuẩn, - kháng vi sinh vật, - chống suy giảm miễn dịch. ► Người Thái dùng nó để chữa vết thương ngoài da. Biến chế sử dụng thông thường nhất là : ● Nấu sắc vỏ trái cây măng cụt dùng để : - chống viêm sưng anti-inflammatoire ( trường hợp phong thấp rhumatisme ), - để điều chĩnh vận chuyển đường ruột ( trường hợp kiết lỵ, rối loạn đau bụng mãn tính ) - dùng tẫy rữa vết thương - và những vết loét , Hiệu quả xấu và rủi ro : Hiệu quả ngoài ý muốn : ● Sử dụng lâu dài nước ép măng cụt có thể liên kết với chứng acidose lactique ( acidose bệnh có acide trong nước tiểu, trường hợp này do lượng acide lactique vượt quá giới hạn ) ● Những bệnh nhân mắc phải bệnh tiểu đường dùng nước ép măng cụt với một cẫn thận lý do trong măng cụt có một hàm lượng đường cao. Nguyễn Thanh Vân **** tvvn.org/forum/showwiki.php?title=Chapter:M%C4%83ng_C%E1%... : Nhấp vào link để đọc thông tin đầy đủ, rất cảm ơn. III/ Thành phần dinh dưỡng: 100 gram phần ăn được (quả tươi) chứa - Calories 60-63 - Chất đạm 0.5-0.60 g - Chất béo 0.1-0.60 g - Chất carbohydrates 10-14.7 g - Chất sơ 5.0-5.10 g - Calcium 0.01- 8 mg - Sắt 0.20- 0.80 mg - Phosphorus 0.02- 12.0 mg - Thiamine (B1) 0.03 mg - Vitamin C 1-2 mg (ngoài ra còn có Potassium, Niacin...) **** QUY TRÌNH, KỶ THUẬT TRỒNG VÀ CHĂM SÓC VÀ THU HOẠCH CÂY MĂNG CỤT www.skhcn.vinhlong.gov.vn/Default.aspx?tabid=143&ctl=... **** KỶ THUẬT TRỒNG CÂY MĂNG CỤT : hoinongdan.cantho.gov.vn/?tabid=138&ndid=52&key= **** www.lrc-tnu.edu.vn/dongy/show_target.plx?url=/thuocdongy/... ___________________________________________________________ **** www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/mangosteen.html One of the most praised of tropical fruits, and certainly the most esteemed fruit in the family Guttiferae, the mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana L., is almost universally known or heard of by this name. There are numerous variations in nomenclature: among Spanish-speaking people, it is called mangostan; to the French, it is mangostanier, mangoustanier, mangouste or mangostier; in Portuguese, it is mangostao, mangosta or mangusta; in Dutch, it is manggis or manggistan; in Vietnamese, mang cut; in Malaya, it may be referred to in any of these languages or by the local terms, mesetor, semetah, or sementah; in the Philippines, it is mangis or mangostan. Throughout the Malay Archipelago, there are many different spellings of names similar to most of the above. Plate XLI: MANGOSTEEN, Garcinia mangostana—Painted by Dr. M.J. Dijkman Description The mangosteen tree is very slow-growing, erect, with a pyramidal crown; attains 20 to 82 ft (6-25 m) in height, has dark-brown or nearly black, flaking bark, the inner bark containing much yellow, gummy, bitter latex. The evergreen, opposite, short-stalked leaves are ovate-oblong or elliptic, leathery and thick, dark-green, slightly glossy above, yellowish-green and dull beneath; 3 1/2 to 10 in (9-25 cm) long, 1 3/4 to 4 in (4.5-10 cm) wide, with conspicuous, pale midrib. New leaves are rosy. Flowers, 1 1/2 to 2 in (4-5 cm) wide and fleshy, may be male or hermaphrodite on the same tree. The former are in clusters of 3-9 at the branch tips; there are 4 sepals and 4 ovate, thick, fleshy petals, green with red spots on the outside, yellowish-red inside, and many stamens though the aborted anthers bear no pollen. The hermaphrodite are borne singly or in pairs at the tips of young branchlets; their petals may be yellowish-green edged with red or mostly red, and are quickly shed. The fruit, capped by the prominent calyx at the stem end and with 4 to 8 triangular, flat remnants of the stigma in a rosette at the apex, is round, dark-purple to red-purple and smooth externally; 1 1/3 to 3 in (3.4-7.5 cm) in diameter. The rind is 1/4 to 3/8 in (6-10 mm) thick, red in cross-section, purplish-white on the inside. It contains bitter yellow latex and a purple, staining juice. There are 4 to 8 triangular segments of snow-white, juicy, soft flesh (actually the arils of the seeds). The fruit may be seedless or have 1 to 5 fully developed seeds, ovoid-oblong, somewhat flattened, 1 in (2.5 cm) long and 5/8 in (1.6 cm) wide, that cling to the flesh. The flesh is slightly acid and mild to distinctly acid in flavor and is acclaimed as exquisitely luscious and delicious. Origin and Distribution The place of origin of the mangosteen is unknown but is believed to be the Sunda Islands and the Moluccas; still, there are wild trees in the forests of Kemaman, Malaya. Corner suggests that the tree may have been first domesticated in Thailand, or Burma. It is much cultivated in Thailand–where there were 9,700 acres (4,000 ha) in 1965–also in Kampuchea, southern Vietnam and Burma, throughout Malaya and Singapore. The tree was planted in Ceylon about 1800 and in India in 1881. There it succeeds in 4 limited areas–the Nilgiri Hills, the Tinnevelly district of southern Madras, the Kanya-kumani district at the southernmost tip of the Madras peninsula, and in Kerala State in southwestern India. The tree is fairly common only in the provinces of Mindanao and Sulu (or Jolo) in the Philippines. It is rare in Queensland, where it has been tried many times since 1854, and poorly represented in tropical Africa (Zanzibar, Ghana, Gabon and Liberia). There were fruiting trees in greenhouses in England in 1855. The mangosteen was introduced into Trinidad from the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew, England, between 1850 and 1860 and the first fruit was borne in 1875. It reached the Panama Canal Zone and Puerto Rico in 1903 but there are only a few trees in these areas, in Jamaica, Dominica and Cuba, and some scattered around other parts of the West Indies. The United States Department of Agriculture received seeds from Java in 1906 (S.P.I. #17146). A large test block of productive trees has been maintained at the Lancetilla Experimental Station at Tela, Honduras, for many years. Quite a few trees distributed by the United Fruit Company long ago have done well on the Atlantic coast of Guatemala. In 1924, Dr. Wilson Popenoe saw the mangosteen growing at one site in Ecuador. In 1939, 15,000 seeds were distributed by the Canal Zone Experiment Gardens to many areas of tropical America. It is probable that only a relatively few seedlings survived. It is known that many die during the first year. Dr. Victor Patiño has observed flourishing mangosteen trees at the site of an old mining settlement in Mariquita, Colombia, in the Magdalena Valley and the fruits are sold on local markets. Dierberger Agricola Ltda., of Sao Paulo, included the mangosteen in their nursery catalog in 1949. Despite early trials in Hawaii, the tree has not become well acclimatized and is still rare in those islands. Neither has it been successful in California. It encounters very unfavorable soil and climate in Florida. Some plants have been grown for a time in containers in greenhouses. One tree in a very protected coastal location and special soil lived to produce a single fruit and then succumbed to winter cold. Despite the oft-repeated Old World enthusiasm for this fruit, it is not always viewed as worth the trouble to produce. In Jamaica, it is regarded as nice but overrated; not comparable to a good field-ripe pineapple or a choice mango. Varieties According to Corner, the fruit from seedling trees is fairly uniform; only one distinct variation is known and that is in the Sulu Islands. The fruit is larger, the rind thicker than normal, and the flesh more acid; the flavor more pronounced. In North Borneo, a seemingly wild form has only 4 carpels, each containing a fully-developed seed, and this is probably not unique. Climate The mangosteen is ultra-tropical. It cannot tolerate temperatures below 40º F (4.44º C), nor above 100º F (37.78º C). Nursery seedlings are killed at 45º F (7.22º C). It is limited in Malaya to elevations below 1,500 ft (450 m). In Madras it grows from 250 to 5,000 ft (76-1,500 m) above sea-level. Attempts to establish it north of 200 latitude have all failed. It ordinarily requires high atmospheric humidity and an annual rainfall of at least 50 in (127 cm), and no long periods of drought. In Dominica, mangosteens growing in an area having 80 in (200 cm) of rain yearly required special care, but those in another locality with 105 in (255 cm) and soil with better moisture- holding capacity, flourished. Soil The tree is not adapted to limestone and does best in deep, rich organic soil, especially sandy loam or laterite. In India, the most productive specimens are on clay containing much coarse material and a little silt. Sandy alluvial soils are unsuitable and sand low in humus contributes to low yields. The tree needs good drainage and the water table ought to be about 6 ft (1.8 m) below ground level. However, in the Canal Zone, productive mangosteen groves have been established where it is too wet for other fruit trees–in swamps requiring drainage ditches between rows and in situations where the roots were bathed with flowing water most of the year, in spite of the fact that standing water in nursery beds will kill seedlings. The mangosteen must be sheltered from strong winds and salt spray, as well as saline soil or water. Propagation Technically, the so-called "seeds" are not true seeds but adventitious embryos, or hypocotyl tubercles, inasmuch as there has been no sexual fertilization. When growth begins, a shoot emerges from one end of the seed and a root from the other end. But this root is short-lived and is replaced by roots which develop at the base of the shoot. The process of reproduction being vegetative, there is naturally little variation in the resulting trees and their fruits. Some of the seeds are polyembryonic, producing more than one shoot. The individual nucellar embryos can be separated, if desired, before planting. Inasmuch as the percentage of germination is directly related to the weight of the seed, only plump, fully developed seeds should be chosen for planting. Even these will lose viability in 5 days after removal from the fruit, though they are viable for 3 to 5 weeks in the fruit. Seeds packed in lightly dampened peat moss, sphagnum moss or coconut fiber in airtight containers have remained viable for 3 months. Only 22% germination has been realized in seeds packed in ground charcoal for 15 days. Soaking in water for 24 hours expedites and enhances the rate of germination. Generally, sprouting occurs in 20 to 22 days and is complete in 43 days. Because of the long, delicate taproot and poor lateral root development, transplanting is notoriously difficult. It must not be attempted after the plants reach 2 ft (60 cm). At that time the depth of the taproot may exceed that height. There is greater seedling survival if seeds are planted directly in the nursery row than if first grown in containers and then transplanted to the nursery. The nursery soil should be 3 ft (1 m) deep, at least. The young plants take 2 years or more to reach a height of 12 in (30 cm), when they can be taken up with a deep ball of earth and set out. Fruiting may take place in 7 to 9 years from planting but usually not for 10 or even 20 years. Conventional vegetative propagation of the mangosteen is difficult. Various methods of grafting have failed. Cuttings and air-layers, with or without growth-promoting chemicals, usually fail to root or result in deformed, short-lived plants. Inarching on different rootstocks has appeared promising at first but later incompatibility has been evident with all except G. xanthochymus Hook. f. (G tinctoria Dunn.) or G. lateriflora Bl., now commonly employed in the Philippines. In Florida, approach-grafting has succeeded only by planting a seed of G. xanthochymus about 1 1/4 in (3 cm) from the base of a mangosteen seedling in a container and, when the stem of the G. xanthochymus seedling has become 1/8 in (3 mm) thick, joining it onto the 3/16 to 1/4 in (5-6 mm) thick stem of the mangosteen at a point about 4 in (10 cm) above the soil. When the graft has healed, the G. xanthochymus seedling is beheaded. The mangosteen will make good progress having both root systems to grow on, while the G. xanthochymus rootstock will develop very little. Culture A spacing of 35 to 40 ft (10.7-12 m) is recommended. Planting is preferably done at the beginning of the rainy season. Pits 4 x 4 x 4 1/2 ft (1.2 x l.2 x l.3 m) are prepared at least 30 days in advance, enriched with organic matter and topsoil and left to weather. The young tree is put in place very carefully so as not to injure the root and given a heavy watering. Partial shading with palm fronds or by other means should be maintained for 3 to 5 years. Indian growers give each tree regular feeding with well-rotted manure–100 to 200 lbs (45-90 kg)–and peanut meal–10 to 15 lbs (4.5-6.8 kg) total, per year. Some of the most fruitful mangosteen trees are growing on the banks of streams, lakes, ponds or canals where the roots are almost constantly wet. However, dry weather just before blooming time and during flowering induces a good fruit-set. Where a moist planting site is not available, irrigation ditches should be dug to make it possible to maintain an adequate water supply and the trees are irrigated almost daily during the dry season. In Malaya and Ceylon, it is a common practice to spread a mulch of coconut husks or fronds to retain moisture. A 16-in (40-cm) mulch of grass restored trees that had begun dehydrating in Liberia. It has been suggested that small inner branches be pruned from old, unproductive trees to stimulate bearing. In Thailand, the tree is said to take 12 to 20 years to fruit. In Panama and Puerto Rico trees grown from large seed and given good culture have borne in six years. Season and Harvesting At low altitudes in Ceylon the fruit ripens from May to July; at higher elevations, in July and August or August and September. In India, there are 2 distinct fruiting seasons, one in the monsoon period (July-October) and another from April through June. Puerto Rican trees in full sun fruit in July and August; shaded trees, in November and December. Cropping is irregular and the yield varies from tree to tree and from season to season. The first crop may be 200 to 300 fruits. Average yield of a full-grown tree is about 500 fruits. The yield steadily increases up to the 30th year of bearing when crops of 1,000 to 2,000 fruits may be obtained. In Madras, individual trees between the ages of 20 and 45 years have borne 2,000 to 3,000 fruits. Productivity gradually declines thereafter, though the tree will still be fruiting at 100 years of age. Ripeness is gauged by the full development of color and slight softening. Picking may be done when the fruits are slightly underripe but they must be fully mature (developed) or they will not ripen after picking. The fruits must be harvested by hand from ladders or by means of a cutting pole and not be allowed to fall. Keeping Quality In dry, warm, closed storage, mangosteens can be held 20 to 25 days. Longer periods cause the outer skin to toughen and the rind to become rubbery; later, the rind hardens and becomes difficult to open and the flesh turns dry. Ripe mangosteens keep well for 3 to 4 weeks in storage at 40º to 55º F (4.44º-12.78º C). Trials in India have shown that optimum conditions for cold storage are temperatures of 39º to 42º F (3.89º-5.56º C) and relative humidity of 85 to 90%, which maintain quality for 49 days. It is recommended that the fruits be wrapped in tissue paper and packed 25-to-the-box in light wooden crates with excelsior padding. Fruits picked slightly unripe have been shipped from Burma to the United Kingdom at 50º to 55º F (10º-12.78º C). From 1927 to 1929, trial shipments were made from Java to Holland at 37.4º F (approximately 2.38º C) and the fruits kept in good condition for 24 days. Pests and Diseases Few pests have been reported. A leaf-eating caterpillar in India may perhaps be the same as that which attacks new shoots in the Philippines and which has been identified as Orgyra sp. of the tussock moth family, Lymantridae. A small ant, Myrnelachista ramulorum, in Puerto Rico, colonizes the tree, tunnels into the trunk and branches, and damages the new growth. Mites sometimes deface the fruits with small bites and scratches. Fully ripe fruits are attacked by monkeys, bats and rats in Asia. In Puerto Rico, thread blight caused by the fungus, Pellicularia koleroga, is often seen on branchlets, foliage and fruits of trees in shaded, humid areas. The fruits may become coated with webbing and ruined. In Malaya, the fungus, Zignoella garcineae, gives rise to "canker"–tuberous growths on the branches, causing a fatal dying-back of foliage, branches and eventually the entire tree. Breakdown in storage is caused by the fungi Diplodia gossypina, Pestalotia sp., Phomopsis sp., Gloeosporium sp., and Rhizopus nigricans. A major physiological problem called "gamboge" is evidenced by the oozing of latex onto the outer surface of the fruits and on the branches during periods of heavy and continuous rains. It does not affect eating quality. Fruit-cracking may occur because of excessive absorption of moisture. In cracked fruits the flesh will be swollen and mushy. Bruising caused by the force of storms may be an important factor in both of these abnormalities. Fruits exposed to strong sun may also exude latex. Mangosteens produced in Honduras often have crystal-like "stones" in the flesh and they may render the fruit completely inedible. Food Uses To select the best table fruits, choose those with the highest number of stigma lobes at the apex, for these have the highest number of fleshy segments and accordingly the fewest seeds. The numbers always correspond. Mangosteens are usually eaten fresh as dessert. One need only hold the fruit with the stem-end downward, take a sharp knife and cut around the middle completely through the rind, and lift off the top half, which leaves the fleshy segments exposed in the colorful "cup"–the bottom half of the rind. The segments are lifted out by fork. The fleshy segments are sometimes canned, but they are said to lose their delicate flavor in canning, especially if pasteurized for as much as 10 minutes. Tests have shown that it is best to use a 40% sirup and sterilize for only 5 minutes. The more acid fruits are best for preserving. To make jam, in Malaya, seedless segments are boiled with an equal amount of sugar and a few cloves for 15 to 20 minutes and then put into glass jars. In the Philippines, a preserve is made by simply boiling the segments in brown sugar, and the seeds may be included to enrich the flavor. The seeds are sometimes eaten alone after boiling or roasting. The rind is rich in pectin. After treatment with 6% sodium chloride to eliminate astringency, the rind is made into a purplish jelly. Food Value Per 100 g of Edible Portion* Calories60-63 Moisture80.2-84.9 g Protein0.50-0.60 g Fat0.1-0.6 g Total Carbohydrates14.3-15.6 g Total Sugars16.42-16.82 g (sucrose, glucose and fructose) Fiber5.0-5.1 g Ash0.2-0.23 g Calcium0.01-8.0 mg Phosphorus0.02-12.0 mg Iron0.20-0.80 mg Thiamine0.03 mg Ascorbic Acid1.0-2.0 mg *Minimum/maximum values from analyses made in the Philippines and Washington, D.C. Phytin (an organic phosphorus compound) constitutes up to 0.68% on a dry-weight basis. The flesh amounts to 31% of the whole fruit. Other Uses Mangosteen twigs are used as chewsticks in Ghana. The fruit rind contains 7 to 14% catechin tannin and rosin, and is used for tanning leather in China. It also yields a black dye. Wood: In Thailand, all non-bearing trees are felled, so the wood is available but usually only in small dimensions. It is dark-brown, heavy, almost sinks in water, and is moderately durable. It has been used to make handles for spears, also rice pounders, and is employed in construction and cabinetwork. Medicinal Uses: Dried fruits are shipped from Singapore to Calcutta and to China for medicinal use. The sliced and dried rind is powdered and administered to overcome dysentery. Made into an ointment, it is applied on eczema and other skin disorders. The rind decoction is taken to relieve diarrhea and cystitis, gonorrhea and gleet and is applied externally as an astringent lotion. A portion of the rind is steeped in water overnight and the infusion given as a remedy for chronic diarrhea in adults and children. Filipinos employ a decoction of the leaves and bark as a febrifuge and to treat thrush, diarrhea, dysentery and urinary disorders. In Malaya, an infusion of the leaves, combined with unripe banana and a little benzoin is applied to the wound of circumcision. A root decoction is taken to regulate menstruation. A bark extract called "amibiasine", has been marketed for the treatment of amoebic dysentery. The rind of partially ripe fruits yields a polyhydroxy-xanthone derivative termed mangostin, also ß-mangostin. That of fully ripe fruits contains the xanthones, gartanin, 8-disoxygartanin, and normangostin. A derivative of mangostin, mangostin-e, 6-di-O-glucoside, is a central nervous system depressant and causes a rise in blood pressure. **** www.stuartxchange.org/Mangosteen.html en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Purple_mangosteen www.tropilab.com/gar-man.html www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18725264
The Other Way (1969) ...item 3.. Get the skinny on Tallahassee Naturally (Jun. 26, 2013 7:56 PM) ...
Image by marsmet525 The Full Moon Skinny Dip is a flyer easily recognizable flyer around campus. Many think, very few participate. Naturally Tallahassee invites college students every full moon, of every month to indulge in some nude recreation. As a fashion enthusiast, I consume myself with the latest trends, textiles, and designers. Obviously, I love clothes. . ........*****All images are copyrighted by their respective authors ....... . ... message header for item 2... Common sense, planning make a safer campus Incoming students should be aware of the emergency blue light system, which functions as a means of contacting FSUPD for immediate assistance. There are over 400 of these blue light telephones throughout campus, so noting their locations is a way to be ready in case of an emergency. . ... message header for item 1. Leftover rice makes a last-minute meal I love fried rice not only for its taste and versatility, but also because it’s so easy to make at the last minute. I almost always have most of the core ingredients stocked in my pantry, refrigerator and freezer. If a carton of leftover take-out restaurant rice suddenly appears on a shelf next to the milk, I’m good to go. . ........................................................................................................................................................................................... . .....item 1).... Leftover rice makes a last-minute meal ... .... The Miami Herald ... www.miamiherald.com/ ... The Miami Herald > Living > Food ... FRIED RICE ... BY SARA MOULTON ASSOCIATED PRESS www.miamiherald.com/2013/04/25/3360267/leftover-rice-make... Starchy, crunchy and flavorful, fried rice is a deeply satisfying dish no matter what you add to it. And you can add just about any vegetable or protein you care to name, fresh or left over. I love fried rice not only for its taste and versatility, but also because it’s so easy to make at the last minute. I almost always have most of the core ingredients stocked in my pantry, refrigerator and freezer. If a carton of leftover take-out restaurant rice suddenly appears on a shelf next to the milk, I’m good to go. . .......................... img code photo ... Shrimp fried rice media.miamiherald.com/smedia/2013/04/23/16/00/OnksA.Em.56... Shrimp fried rice with pickled radishes MATTHEW MEAD / AP Main dish --- Shrimp Fried Rice with Pickled Radishes ... 2 eggs ... Kosher salt and ground pepper ... 2 tablespoons vegetable or canola oil, divided ... 1 cup finely chopped yellow onion ... 1/2 pound peeled and deveined raw shrimp ... 2 garlic cloves, minced ... 2 teaspoons grated fresh ginger ... 3 cups cooked brown rice ... 2 cups coarsely shredded radishes (about 10 large radishes) ... 2 tablespoons seasoned rice vinegar ... 1 tablespoon low-sodium soy sauce ... 2 tablespoons sake or dry sherry ... 2 teaspoons sesame oil ... 1 cup blanched fresh or thawed frozen peas ... 1 cup blanched sugar snap peas, cut into 1/2-inch pieces Heat a large nonstick skillet over medium-high. Coat the pan with cooking spray. In a small bowl, lightly beat the eggs. Add a pinch of salt and some pepper to the eggs, then add them to the pan. Tilt the pan to spread the egg all around to make a flat pancake. Cook for 30 to 45 seconds, or until almost set. Turn over the egg (you can cut it in a few pieces to make it easier, using the side of a nonstick pan-safe spatula) and cook for another 10 seconds. Transfer the egg to a cutting board. Add 1/2 tablespoon of the oil to the pan. Once the oil is hot, add the onion. Reduce the heat to medium and cook, stirring occasionally, until the onion is lightly golden, about 3 to 5 minutes. Add the shrimp and cook, stirring, until almost cooked through, about another 3 to 5 minutes. Add the garlic and ginger and cook, stirring, for 1 minute. Transfer the mixture to a bowl and return the skillet to the heat. Add the remaining 1 1/2 tablespoons of oil to the skillet, then add the rice, pressing it flat with the back of the spatula. Cook until the rice is slightly crispy, turning it over with the spatula, about 8 to 10 minutes. While the rice is cooking, in a small bowl combine the radishes, vinegar and salt to taste. In a small bowl combine the soy sauce, sake and sesame oil. Chop the egg and add it along with the peas and sugar snap peas to the bowl with the shrimp. When the rice is nicely crisped, add the contents of the shrimp bowl and the soy sauce mixture to the skillet and cook, stirring, until the mixture is heated through. Transfer the fried rice to 4 bowls and top each portion with some of the radishes. Makes 4 servings. Per serving: 440 calories; 120 calories from fat (27 percent of total calories); 14 g fat (2 g saturated; 0 g trans fats); 175 mg cholesterol; 50 g carbohydrate; 7 g fiber; 9 g sugar; 22 g protein; 670 mg sodium. .......................... . I’ve never been all that great at cooking rice. I just can’t seem to get the ratio and timing right, and I always forget when you’re supposed to leave it alone and when you’re supposed to stir it. I finesse this handicap by leaning on a little trick I learned during my restaurant days: boiling the rice in a big pot of salted water as if it was pasta. That way there’s no rice-to-water ratio to worry about. For brown rice, 45 minutes does the trick. And if you’re in a particular rush, you can swap in instant brown rice, which is almost as nutritious as regular brown rice and cooks up quicker, as advertised. This being spring, I made sure that the stars of the recipe were seasonal ingredients, starting with peas. Fresh peas are heavenly, of course, but they start turning to starch as soon as they’re harvested, so be sure to cook them right away. I also incorporated two other spring vegetables— sugar snap peas and radishes, though I left the radishes raw. Saute a radish and this spicy, crispy root vegetable becomes sweet and tender. But I like the kick of a raw radish, so I simply shredded them, then tossed them with a little seasoned rice vinegar. Sprinkled on top of the finished dish, these raw radishes are similar to a pickle. Protein-wise, this recipe calls for shrimp, but you can use any protein you choose, or toss in mushrooms instead and call it a vegetarian’s delight. As is typical in Chinese cuisine, this dish requires little cooking time. But you must have all the ingredients measured and chopped before you toss them in the pan. If you want to streamline the process even further, you can leave out the sauce, simply serving the finished dish with soy sauce and hot sauce on the side. For that matter, you could lose the radish garnish, though even suggesting such a thing makes me sad. In the end, I can pretty much guarantee that if you try this recipe even once, you’ll be inspired to make it again and again, changing it slightly every time to make room for whichever delicious seasonal ingredients happen to be at hand or whichever leftovers are crying out to be used up. READ MORE FOOD STORIES FROM THE MIAMI HERALD . . ............................................................................................................................................................................................. . .....item 2).... Common sense, planning make a safer campus ... ... FSU News ... www.fsunews.com/ ... Be in the know with FSU Guardian, the Night Nole and more protection from FSUPD . .......................... img code photo ... The Blue Light Trail cmsimg.tallahassee.com/apps/pbcsi.dll/bilde?Site=CD&D... The Blue Light Trail is one of the numerous precautions Florida State has implemented to increase campus safety. / Zachary Goldstein / FSView .......................... . May 22, 2013 Written by Brittany Lyons Staff Writer @Bhl11Lyons FILED UNDER FSU News FSU News Life www.fsunews.com/article/20130523/FSVIEW0101/130522030/Com... With so much else to focus on when students move in and get settled for the school year, safety may be the last thing that Seminoles are thinking about. The good news is that FSU already has several measures in place that maintain safety on campus. Incoming students should be aware of the emergency blue light system, which functions as a means of contacting FSUPD for immediate assistance. There are over 400 of these blue light telephones throughout campus, so noting their locations is a way to be ready in case of an emergency. In addition, students that provide their cell phone numbers will be able to receive emergency notifications through FSU Alert, and university police offer a free new service called FSU Guardian—if you sign up, an emergency call from your cell phone would allow FSUPD to have quick access to your information as well as GPS coordinates of your location in order to help them respond more quickly. FSUPD also allows students to register their personal and valuable property online in case of theft or loss. Lieutenant Hank Jacob of FSUPD’s Support Services Division advises students to record the serial numbers of their valuables. According to Jacob, this information is especially valuable if property ends up at a pawn shop or advertised on Craigslist. Of course, taking caution with your belongings is important as well. “A lot of it is common sense,” Jacob said. “One of the biggest things we get is people leaving their stuff around. You can’t expect it to be there when you get back. You can’t leave your residence hall unlocked or your car unlocked. You have to do the most you can to secure and safeguard your property.” Common sense also applies to keeping safe at night. Students have several night-time transportation options. The S.A.F.E. Connection—a project by the Student Government Association in affiliation with FSUPD—offers free transportation to any location on-campus and several off-campus locations as well. It is available from 7 p.m. to 3 a.m. nearly every night during the fall, spring, and summer semesters. During the fall and spring, the Night Nole also provides transportation to even more off-campus locations but does not operate on Sunday or Monday nights. It is designed to transport students from the Tennessee Strip to over 32 apartment complexes. For those students living in residence halls on campus, University Housing provides Night Staff for safety concerns that may arise between the hours of 10:30 p.m. and 7:30 a.m. In addition, female students can take a Rape Aggression Defense (RAD) program that is free if not taken for credit. There are many ways to prevent crime and maintain safety while at FSU, but students who are conscious of their habits and their surroundings will be able to decrease their risk even further. Common sense knowledge like letting a friend know your whereabouts and not walking alone at night is essential to abide by at college because of the unique and riskier environment. It is essential for incoming students to exercise caution as they adjust to college life. Finally, Jacob offered advice on how to stay safe and be responsible at FSU. “Don’t break the law,” Jacob said. “Don’t drink. Don’t do pot. Don’t be so trusting or naïve.” Important Phone Numbers: FSUPD Emergency Situation: 911 FSUPD Urgent Situation: 311 S.A.F.E. Connection: 644-7233 . . . ............................................................................................................................................................................................. . .....item 3).... Get the skinny on Tallahassee Naturally ... FSU News ... www.fsunews.com/ ... Jun. 26, 2013 7:56 PM | . ........................... img code photo ... Taking minimalism to the extreme cmsimg.tallahassee.com/apps/pbcsi.dll/bilde?Site=CD&D... Taking minimalism to the extreme, Custom Content Editor Tammy Noel throws fashion, and her clothes, to the wind in favor of nude naturism. / Tammy Noel and Katie Dolciato / FSView ........................... . Written by Tammy L. Noel Custom Content Editor FILED UNDER FSU News FSU News Campus www.fsunews.com/article/20130627/FSVIEW1/130626026/Get-sk... So we’re supposed to just take our clothes off now? Cool. My comrades and I jumped out of my Jetta and walked on the dirt beaten path toward the lake. Our first sight: Chuck from Pensacola, standing in bare flesh with a brewski waving hey. The Full Moon Skinny Dip is a flyer easily recognizable flyer around campus. Many think, very few participate. Naturally Tallahassee invites college students every full moon, of every month to indulge in some nude recreation. As a fashion enthusiast, I consume myself with the latest trends, textiles, and designers. Obviously, I love clothes. What I appreciate most about clothing is the actual textile. My favorite is leather. Whether its pebbled, saffiano, or patent leather, authentic animal hide maintains a caliber that is unmatched to the over popularized poly-cotton blends, most college students are accustomed to it. It’s tough. It’s durable. Yet, it’s restrictive. And no matter how much I enjoy my leather trousers, what’s even better than putting it on, is taking it off. Clothing dictates opinions. They do. That blonde who sits in the front row with her Tory Brunch flats and Michael Kors tote, what do you really know of her? Or that hipster that wears tight skinnies with a graphic tee, what do you really know of him? Nothing. You actually think you know more than you do. Clothing protects us, but always restricts our frame of judgment. Shedding free of that restrictive material may allow us to witness a clarity that we wouldn’t normally see. Well, I needed some clarity. But wait—the closest thing to being “natural” is the Nature Valley bars I snag from the vending machine. I hate the outdoors so much my dream home resides in the heart of metropolitan city with the rooftop garden. I was predictably nervous. Was I going to be hit on? I mean how could they possibly resist themselves. Or at least I’d like to believe that to be the case. But, quite possibly, this wasn’t about me, maybe it was something deeper than the stereotypical notions we all cling to. “Now you start asking people why and everybody will give you a different reason, high on most peoples’ list is the freedom of it,” LeValley said. “To me, it’s a way of getting in touch with ancestral roots. This is the way people were for thousands and thousands of years—connected with all of history.” A frequent guest lecturer at FSU and FAMU, over a warm fire and s’mores, LeValley, amongst others, dissected the reason why. However, in order to understand why, I needed to understand how. “Back in the early 80s a whole lot of students got to skinny dipping at [Sam Allen Lake] off Springhill Road. There might have been 100 students there,” LeValley shared. “Then one day the police did a very stupid thing. They raided the place and arrested seven people. One of them demanded a jury trial, went to court and won.” Seriousness overcame everyone standing around the fire. Like a Kanye interview, LeValley had our attention. All that could be heard was the crunch of graham crackers and the crackle of the fire. “The jury said, ‘well everyone knows that’s a skinny dipping place. Why are you surprised?’ It became totally unenforceable.” After being displaced, the unclad crusaders decided to find another lake. Yet again, the police raided that pond and left the nudists…well, naked. “Then finally three of us got to together and developed a strategy of finding so many lakes and sinkholes, and rivers that we could meet in the parking lot Sunday morning and decided then and there which one we were going to. We didn’t have to worry about the police stalking the place out,” said LeValley. “So we did that for 4 years. Rob had just joined us and he started looking for some places in this area and he went to a lake. There was an old man fishing and Rob decided to be honest and tell him what he was looking for.” Luck struck. That old man fishing had a brother with a lake and for a small rental fee the unclad crusaders had a haven to call their own—equipped with trees, a lake, a hiking trail and campfire. Perseverance created the retreat that I was sitting in the heart of smacking on s’mores and sharing stories. To my left, stood Monty. A decorated retired pilot, who chose to not reveal his last name, but his reason for becoming a nudist was simple—he wanted freedom from judgment. “That’s one of the things that I’ve always thought was really beautiful about nudism. It destroys the textile classes that our society sets up because I’m not wearing K-Mart and you’re not wearing Gucci,” Monty said. “We’re wearing nothing.” As the night aged, in the midst of the rainy weather, I bonded with complete strangers. We swam together in the lake and talk about everything: Blackboard, tattoos, and careers—normal topics. The water was perfect, as if the temperature was set to stimulate conversation. Though it was pitch black, the full moon illuminated their faces. When the mosquitoes decided it was feeding time, I witness the grimaces—a normal expression. I observed as the vets coyly smiled at the rookies’ pain—a normal expression. Around the campfire, in between light rain showers, we discussed politics, music and sports. Well, I didn’t really participate in the latter. During the NBA finals, I caught up on Project Runway. Anyhow, I had normal conversation, about normal topics, with normal people. It made me wonder why, though, isn’t this considered normal? “I find it interesting that everyone laughs and pokes fun at nudists’ resorts, which is not a sexually thing, yet sex with a lot of different people is so accepted in our society,” Monty said. “You’re just sitting around with friends nude and just enjoying the elements. I didn’t feel like it was a brilliant brainchild that I came up with. I just felt like it’s a question that begs to be asked, since I’ve become a nudist.” Nudity may be subculture, though it’s a factor that connects humans. Clothing is a necessity. Hell, I would be without a passion without them but at times clothing is somewhat of a necessary evil. “When a girl is in clothes, whether she’s dressed provocatively or just in business clothes, there are people that are always looking at your attire to see how you present yourself,” Naturally FSU chapter president Nina Vallad said. “Here you are completely nude, so you don’t have to worry about ‘is this popping out or makes me look fat.’ You’re just here and you’re experiencing what it feels like to be completely beautiful. Everyone is basically accepted at face value.” Now, did I look? Yes, at times maybe too long. Bodies are different shapes, shades and sizes. Many of those shapes I’ve never seen prior to that night. Yet the hippie weirdo scene I thought I was getting myself into wasn’t so weird after all. Am I now a self-proclaimed nudist? No and I have the bug bites to prove why. However, at the end of the night, it suddenly dawned on me that I was just like them—bare; stripped of clothes and judgment, yet undoubtedly myself. My new friend Monty agrees: “You find that when you’re down to absolutely nothing but just your body than you get to know people for who they really are.” . . . ........................................................................................................................................................................................... . .
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